Java Vs Python – Detailed Comparison With Facts

Java Vs Python

Are you confused about which programming language is best for you? Then you are on the right page! Read this blog to know the difference between Java and Python. You will surely be able to judge which one is best for you!

Both Java and Python have are two very popular programming languages. The latest TIOBE Programming Community Index reports that Java is more popular than Python. Presently, developers use Java and Python for developing a wide variety of mobile applications, desktop applications, and web applications. Both of these programming languages are also widely used for machine learning and data science.

Java, unlike Python, is one of the two official programming languages of Android platforms. Java was designed with the goal that developers can build software with at least implementation dependencies. On the other hand, Python is one of the very few programming languages in the world, which gives special emphasis on code-readability. Hence it becomes very important for code developers, programmers as well as amateurs to understand the difference between the two hugely popular programming languages.

In this blog, you will learn:

Java: Introduction, History, and Features

Java is a general-purpose programming language, designed to have a few implementations and dependencies as possible. It is class-based and object-oriented. The primary purpose of Java Language is to let the application developers write once, run anywhere (WORA). It means that the developers who have compiled the JAVA code can run the system at any platform which supports Java. The primary language of Java, also known as syntax is similar to that of C language and C++ language. The only difference between Java, C, and C++ is that Java has fewer low-level facilities than either of the following languages.

Java Logo

Java is currently one of the most popular programming languages in use. This popularity is particularly for client-server web applications, which has around 9 million developers. Most recently, GitHub mentioned this statement in 2019.  Currently, Java is so popular that many famous websites won’t work until and unless you have Java installed on your system!

History

In 1991, three colleagues, James Gosling (also known as Dr. Java), Mike Sheridan, and Patrick Naughton, commenced the development of Java. The original purpose of developing this language was to make television communication better. However, after forming the language, the three friends realized that the language was too advanced for that time’s digital cable television industry. Java was initially called Oak after an oak tree, which was right outside their office. Later on, James Gosling and his friends named it Green. Finally, the language was renamed as Java, divided from the word Java Coffee, which was very popular in Indonesia. Gosling and his friends designed Java with C/C++ styles syntax in order to make it understandable to other developers.

The first public execution of Java was released in 1996, with the name of Java 1.0. The language was released by Sun Microsystems under the promise of Write Once, Run Anywhere (WORA). The company also provided no-cost runtimes on all the popular platforms and also allowed network and file access restrictions. Soon, Java rose to its popularity, with many major web browsers incorporating the ability to run Java applets within its web pages.  

Later on, Arthur van Hoff re-wrote the Java 1.0 compiler so that it could comply strictly with the language specification of Java 1.0. The later versions of Java had multiple configurations for different types of platforms. They included technologies and APIs for business applications, which were run in server environments, APIs optimized mobile apps.

Sun Microsystems and Java were acquired by Oracle Corporation in 2009-10. This was followed by the immediate resignation of James Goslings, founder of Java. Goslings went on to briefly work with Google. Goslings then joined his friend Bill Vass in a startup called “Liquid Robotics.” In 2016, Liquid Robotics was acquired by Boeing. Now Goslings works as an advisor in Scala company named Lightbend, following a  brief period of working as a designated engineer at Amazon.

In the creation of Java language, Sun Microsystems laid down the five following goals:

  1. It must be simple, object-oriented, and familiar.
  2. The language must be robust and secure.
  3. It must be architecture-neutral and portable.
  4. Java must execute with high performance.
  5. It must be interpreted, threaded, and dynamic.

Features of Java

  1. Object-oriented: Since Java is based on an object model, a developer can easily extend Java. Everything is an object in Java.
  2. Platform Independent: When a programmer compiles Java, there is no platform-specific machine; instead, JVM organizes them into small independent byte codes. The Virtual Machine (JVM) later on interprets the byte codes which are distributed over the web. This feature is not available in many programming languages, like Python, C, and C++.
  3. Simple Design: The design of Java is effortless to learn. You can quickly master Java if you can understand the basic concept of OOP Java.
  4. Security: One can develop virus-free, tamper-free systems with the help of Java’s security feature. It also provides different authentication techniques, which are public-key encryption based.
  5. Architecture-neutral: Java compiler can generate an architecture-neutral object file format, which can make the compiled code executable on numerous processors. This is possible because of the presence of a Java runtime system.
  6. High Performance: One can enable high performance in Java with the use of Just-In-Time compilers.

Code for “Hello World”

You may save this file as <name>.java

Output.

Hello World!!

Disadvantages of Java

  1. Java is Slow: Java is comparatively slower with respect to other programming languages.
  2. Java Takes More Memory Space: This is one of the biggest problems in the Java language, and despite trying so hard, developers of the language are unable to overcome this problem. This programming language takes considerably more memory space than the other popular programming languages like C and C++.
  3. Inefficient Architecture code: The method used to create a portable and architecturally code is inefficient.
  4. No support for low-level programming: With Java, low-level programming cannot be done as it is intended to be portable across platforms.

Famous companies using Java

It is reported that around 9527 companies use Java across the globe. Some of these famous companies are:

  1. Google
  2. Netflix
  3. Pinterest
  4. Vox Media
  5. Instagram
  6. Spotify
  7. Uber

Python: Introduction, History, and Features

Python is a high level and general-purpose programming language. It was first released in 1991 by a Dutch programmer Guido van Rossum. The main emphasis of Python design is on code readability. Python is notable for it’s the use of significant white space. The language, similar to Java, has an object-oriented approach. This object-oriented approach helps the programmer to write clear and logical code for both small and large scale projects. One of the features of Python is that it supports multiple programming paradigms, which includes structured, object-oriented, and functional programming.

Python Logo

In the late 1980s, many conceived Python as one of the successors to the ABC language. It’s later version, Python 2.0, which was released in 2000, had new features like list comprehensions and garbage collection system which are capable of collecting reference cycles. Another version, Python 3.0, was released in 2008. It included some significant revisions and is not entirely backward compatible. The Python 2.0 code is unable to run on an unmodified Python 3.0.

History

Guido van Rossum declared Python as the successor of the ABC language. He said that this new programming language would be capable of “exception handling” and can interface with Amoeba Operating System. The work on Python began in December 1989, with Guido van Rossum taking full responsibility for the project as the lead developer. He remained the lead developer till 2018. Guido van Rossum was also given the title of Benevolent Dictator For Life(BDFL). Rossum left this position in July 2018, after he declared that he wants a ‘permanent vacation’ from this role. Although he still plays a vital role in decision making. He is among five core members of the Python Foundation.

Python 2.0 was released in 2000, which introduced many new features like cycle-detecting, garbage collector, and support for Unicode.

Another new version, Python 3.0, was released in December 2008. This major revision of the Python language is not entirely Backward compatible. The company had to backport many of its major features to Python 2.6.x and 2.7.x version series.

Guido van Rossum has also worked for Google, where he developed a web-based code review system called Mondrian using Python Language. During the last moments of his career, he worked with cloud storage service provider Dropbox between 2013 and 2019. After his six-year spell in Dropbox, Rossum officially took retirement.

Features of Python

1.Easy to use: Python is a high-level programming language. Python is very easy to learn with respect to other languages like c, c++, javascript, Java, etc. It is not a big deal to code in python language, and anybody can learn the basics of python in a few hours or days. It is also a programmer-friendly language.

2. Free Source: Python language is freely available on the official website, and you can download it from its official website for free. It is also open-source, which means that source code is available to everyone.

3.Object-Oriented Language:
Object-oriented programming is one of the critical features of the Python Programming language.

4. Graphic Users Interface Programming Support: Graphical Users interfaces (GUI) can be designed using some modules like PyQt5, PyQt4, wxPython, or Tk in python.

5. High-Level Language: Python is a high-level language. This means, when we write programs in python, we do not necessarily require to remember the system architecture, and also, we do not need to manage the memory.

6.Extensible feature: Python is an Extensible language. This means we can write our python code into C or C++ language, and also we can compile that code in these languages.

7. Python is an Integrated language: Python is called an Integrated language as we can easily integrate python with other famous programming languages like C, C++, etc

8.Vast Standard Library: Python has a substantial standard library which provides its programmers with a rich set of module and functions, so the programmer does not have to write his own code for every single thing.

9.Dynamically Typed Language: The typing of Python language is dynamic. This means the programmer does not need to declare the type of variable. This is also known as duck typing.

Python Code for 'hello world'

print('Hello, world!')

Output.

Hello, world!

Drawbacks of Python

Disadvantages of Python are:

  1. Slow Speed: Python is generally slower than other famous programming languages like C and C++. But we cannot deny the fact that Python is a high-level language, unlike C and C++.
  2. Mobile development: Mobile Developers generally do not prefer Python to develop mobile. They see it as a weak language for mobile development. This is the reason why most of the mobile applications are built using programming languages like Carbonell and Java.
  3. Memory Consumption: Since python is flexible for the data-types, Python’s memory consumes a lot of memory. Hence programmers do not prefer Python for memory-intensive tasks and projects.
  4. Database Access: It is one of the few points where Java has the edge over Python Programming Language. The database support connectivity offered by Python is weak as compared to Java Programming Language. As compared to popular technologies like Java, JDBC, and ODBC, Python’s database access layer is found to be very underdeveloped and old fashioned.
  5. Runtime Errors: Python programmers have complained about several issues with the design of the language. Since the word is dynamically typed, it requires considerably more testing and has errors that only show up at runtime.

Famous companies using Python:

  1. Google:  Google’s video platform Youtube is wholly written on python!  
  2. Instagram: This image sharing platform was a simple language that was developed on Django (Python framework) before it was bought by Facebook.
  3. Netflix: The online video streaming platform offers suggestions to its users regularly. And it is made possible only with the help of PYTHON!
  4. Facebook: As per the official blog from Facebook, 21% of the Facebook codebase is based on Python. 

Java Vs. Python: Differences between Java and Python.

Java Python
Java is a compiled language Python is an interpreted language
The typing of Java Language is static. This means you have to declare the type of data while typing. Otherwise, your program will not run. The typing of Python language is dynamic. This means the programmer does not need to declare the type of variable. People generally call it Duck Typing.
Generally, Java can only offer multiple inheritances. This is partially done with the help of interfaces. Python can offer both- single and multiple inheritances.
Java offers almost unlimited string related functions to its users and developers. Although not unlimited, Python programming language still offers a lot of string related functions.
To define class definition, the beginning and end of each description, Java language uses curly braces. To separate code into code blocks, Python uses indentations.
Java programs run slowly as compared to Python. Python programs run faster than Java Programs.
The learning of Java is challenging to learn. Beginners may face difficulty. The learning of Python is relatively easy. In fact, even a beginner can learn and use it quickly. And because of this, beginners generally prefer Python over Java programming language.
Computer or mobile devices that can run the Java Virtual Machine can comfortably run a Java application. Any computer or mobile phone cannot run the Python programming language. Python programs need the target devices to have an interpreter installed in them. Then only a developer can translate code in it. Hence, this particular requirement makes Python comparatively less portable than it’s rival, Java.
The readability of Java is quite tricky. Java takes atleast ten lines of code to read from a file in Java. In this case, too, Python has the upper hand. Python only needs two lines of code to read a file in its interpreter.
The architecture of Java Programming Language mainly revolves around Java Virtual Machine. The role of Java Virtual Machine, also known as JVM, is to provide the run time environment to execute the given code and then to convert bytecode into its machine language. The architecture of Python Programming Language mainly revolves around its interpreter. The role of the interpreter is to read and understand the source code and convert it to machine-independent bytecode.
Some of Java’s best features include having a vast library, vast popularity, excellent tools, and availability of a huge amount of documentation. Some of the most popular features of Python include having a readable and easy to understand coding language. Its development is quicker as compared to Java. It also has a beautiful code that attracts developers to use it extensively.
The best use of Java Programming Language for Desktop GUI applications and software Embed systems and Web application services. The Python Programming Language is widely accessible for the use of scientific and numeric computing, used in Machine learning software or applications.
One of the striking advantages of Java over Python Programming Language is that Java offers stable connectivity with its database. It is one of the few points where Java has the edge over Python Programming Language. The database support connectivity offered by Python is weak as compared to Java Programming Language.
In the United States, the average salary of a Java Developer is around $103,464 per year. In the United States, the average salary of a Python Developer is around $118,626 per year.
While writing code, in the case of Java, if you miss a semicolon (;) at the end of any statement, the program will not run and will throw an error.

In Java Programming Language, it is essential to define particular blocks by using curli braces. Without these braces, there is no chance that the codes will work.

In the case of Python, the programmers do not need to use a semicolon (;) at the end.

In Python Programming Language, generally, the programmers will never see any sight of curly braces. But in Python, indentation is compulsory. Indentation can also significantly improve the readability of the code.

Java enjoys a lot of undeviating refactoring aid as compared to Python Programming Language. This is because of it’s static type system and the Universality of IDE’s in development. Python always had an existence in the talent space and is famous for numerous reasons, including Data Science and DevOps movements.
Java Programming Language does not emphasize too much on code readability. Unlike Java, Python Programming Language exclusively emphasizes code readability. This is why many beginners prefer Python over other Programming Languages. They can avoid writing additional codes to keep their applications running.
Programmers mostly prefer Java to develop mobile applications and games. Programmers find their options limited while developing mobile applications and games by using Python Programming Language.

Which Programming Language is the best?

You can observe below the trends for the searches about these two languages in Google Search, worldwide for the past 5 years.

Python is a perfect choice for beginners. This is because the language is more insightful, and the syntax of Python is very much similar to the English language, and people from all over the world love using Python. Its open-source nature smoothens the progress of a swing of new tools that improve it.

But, Java is seen as a general-purpose programming language that was specifically designed with a fundamental goal of allowing programmers and developers to Write Once Run Anywhere.

The selection of any of these languages ultimately comes down to nature and the budget of the development project. At the same time, for beginners, it Is advisable to use Python Programming Language.

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